Kıdney Stone Dısease

Kidney Stone Disease 

Stone disease is a major health problem due to frequent recurrence and high incidence. Geographical differences are more common in some populations due to race differences and genetic makeup. Turkish society is also a society where stone disease is frequently seen for the reasons mentioned.

Urinary stones are hard formations seen in the kidneys or the urinary tract. The substances which are not solubilized and not drowned in the urine form over time crystallization and accumulation.

Kidney stones occur when substances such as calcium oxalate or uric acid are present with high density in the urine normally higher than expected. These substances can precipitate in the form of crystals in the kidney and grow over time to manifest kidney stones. The stones can be removed from the body by shifting or moving down the urinary tract. However, stones that interfere with urine flow by engaging at any level of the urinary tract often lead to feared, severe, typical kidney pain.

What are the factors affecting Stone Formation?

A- Anatomical Abnormalities

1- Ureter Stenosis

2- Upj Obstruction

3- Urethral Prolapse (Urethrocele): A condition in which the urethra shifts from its original position and starts pressing against the vagina.  This condition is mainly triggered by the weakening of the tissues and muscle fibers that are responsible for holding the urethra in place)

4- Ureteral obstruction

5-Horseshoe Kidney

B-Environmental Factors

1-Nutritional Properties

- Fluid Intake

- Nutrition with Calcium Rich Foods

- Gout

2-Climate and Geographic Properties

C- Genetic Factors

In these times, the incidence of stone disease varies approximately between 2% and 5% depending on the geography of the country and other factors. The most common age of stone disease is between 20 and 40 years. In males, it is observed 3 times more than females.

The reocurrence rate of stone disease in a person who has had a stone problem before are:

1.Year %10

5.Year %35

10.Year %50

Sight Periodicity of Stone Types

Calcium oxalate, phosphate or both


Struvite (Infection)


Uric acid




Other (xanthine, silicate, indinavir, triamterene)



Why are Kidney Stones manifesting in Kidneys?

Although there are many factors that play a role in the formation of a stone in a person, the precise reason is not fully known. Genetic susceptibility is one of the most important risk factors in stone formation. The risk of having a stone disease in a family with a stone disease is 10-40%. Geographical factors are also responsible for stone formation. Occupation in mountainous, desert and tropical regions raises the formation rate of Stones. Nutritional habit is one of the most important risk factors in stone formation. Protein and carbohydrate rich, fibrous poor foods increase the risk of stone disease. As the daily amount of water intake increases, the risk decreases. Some metabolic diseases such as recurrent urinary tract infections, some medications, some past bowel surgeries or gout also cause stone formation. In some cases it is thought that the inactive professionals (deskjob employees) and stress are also effective in stone formation.


There are many medical, surgical treatment options for stone disease. The most appropriate treatment option is preferred according to the patient's age, health condition and the size and structure of stone.